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HOW ALCOHOL RETARDS DIGESTION

And here, in order to give those who are not familiar with, the process of digestion, a clear idea of that important operation, and the effect produced when alcohol is taken with food, we quote from the lecture of an English physician, Dr. Henry Monroe, on "The Physiological Action of Alcohol." He says: 
"Every kind of substance employed by man as food consists of sugar, starch, oil and glutinous matters, mingled together in various proportions; these are designed for the support of the animal frame. The glutinous principles of food  fibrine, albumen  and  casein  are employed to build up the structure; while the  oil, starch  and  sugar  are chiefly used to generate heat in the body. 
"The first step of the digestive process is the breaking up of the food in the mouth by means of the jaws and teeth. On this being done, the saliva, a viscid liquor, is poured into the mouth from the salivary glands, and as it mixes with the food, it performs a very important part i…
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HOW ALCOHOL CAUSES MENTAL AND MORAL CHANGES

The transforming power or alcohol is marvelous, and often appalling. It seems to open a way of entrance into the soul for all classes of foolish, insane or malignant spirits, who, so long as it remains in contact with the brain, are able to hold possession. Men of the kindest nature when sober, act often like fiends when drunk. Crimes and outrages are committed, which shock and shame the perpetrators when the excitement of inebriation has passed away. Referring to this subject, Dr. Henry Munroe says: 
"It appears from the experience of Mr. Fletcher, who has paid much attention to the cases of drunkards, from the remarks of Mr. Dunn, in his 'Medical Psychology,' and from observations of my own, that there is some analogy between our physical and psychical natures; for, as the physical part of us, when its power is at a low ebb, becomes susceptible of morbid influences which, in full vigor, would pass over it without effect, so when the psychical (synonymous with the  mora…

HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE BRAIN

I once had the unusual, though unhappy, opportunity of observing the same phenomenon in the brain structure of a man, who, in a paroxysm of alcoholic excitement, decapitated himself under the wheel of a railway carriage, and whose brain was instantaneously evolved from the skull by the crash. The brain itself, entire, was before me within three minutes after the death. It exhaled the odor of spirit most distinctly, and its membranes and minute structures were vascular in the extreme. It looked as if it had been recently injected with vermilion. The white matter of the cerebrum, studded with red points, could scarcely be distinguished, when it was incised, by its natural whiteness; and the pia-mater, or internal vascular membrane covering the brain, resembled a delicate web of coagulated red blood, so tensely were its fine vessels engorged. 
I should add that this condition extended through both the larger and the smaller brain, the cerebrum and cerebellum, but was not so marked in th…

FOOD POISONING

Introduction:
Food poisoning is an acute gastroenteritis caused by the consumption of a food material or a drink which contains the pathogenic micro organism or their toxins or poisonous chemicals.Food poisoning is common in hostels,hotels,communal feedings, and festivel seasons.
A group of persons will be affected with same type of symptoms ,and they give a history of consumption of a common food before few hours.
Types of food poisoning
1) Bacterial food poisoning:
Here the micro organisms called bacteria are responsible.The food material may contain the pathogenic bacteriae or their toxin and will be ingested along with the food.
2) Non bacterial food poisoning:
Due to the presence of toxic chemicals like fertilizers,insectisides,heavy metals and ect.
Since bacterial food poisoning is common it is discussed here.
Bacterial food poisoning:
All bacteria are not harmful.There are some pathogenic bacteria which secrete toxins and cause clinical manifestations.These organisms enter the…

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE MEMBRANES

The parts which first suffer from alcohol are those expansions of the body which the anatomists call the membranes. "The skin is a membranous envelope. Through the whole of the alimentary surface, from the lips downward, and through the bronchial passages to their minutest ramifications, extends the mucous membrane. The lungs, the heart, the liver, the kidneys are folded in delicate membranes, which can be stripped easily from these parts. If you take a portion of bone, you will find it easy to strip off from it a membranous sheath or covering; if you examine a joint, you will find both the head and the socket lined with membranes. The whole of the intestines are enveloped in a fine membrane called  peritoneum . All the muscles are enveloped in membranes, and the fasciculi, or bundles and fibres of muscles, have their membranous sheathing. The brain and spinal cord are enveloped in three membranes; one nearest to themselves, a pure vascular structure, a network of blood-vessels;…

EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BLOOD

Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says: 
"Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact,  so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid." 
It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of tho…

Precautions to be taken while combing hair

Hair combing is a routine activity of almost all people.Some people keep a particular hair style throughout their life and some especially younger generation adopt new styles according to new trends and fashion.Hair styles has got close relation with the personality of a person.The hair of an unhygeinic person is usually tangled and dirty because of lack of washing and combing.To have a healthy scalp hair proper nutrition is needed.General health has got direct relation with the quality and quantity of hair.Regular washing,use of hair oil,proper combing ect are also needed to make the hair beautiful.General hints for combing is discussed here.
1) Different varieties of combs are available in the market.The best comb is selected by considering the nature of hair(hard or soft,long or short) ,style and convenience. 2) Combing should be done with utmost care and concentration.Some people especially gents think about some other matters and comb without any care which may be harmful to the…