Langsung ke konten utama

CEREBRAL PALSY

It is a non progressive neuromuscular disorder causing mild to severe disabilities throughout life.This condition is manifested as a group of persisting qualitative motor disorders which appear in young children due to damage to the brain during delivery or due to some pathological conditions in the intrauterine life.The neuroligical problems are multiple but non progressive in nature.Approximately 2 per 100 live birth is having this problem.This disease is having no hereditary tendency.

Causes of cerebral palsy:

1) Injury to the brain during delivery.

2) As a complication of forceps delivery.

3) Lack of oxygen supply to the baby during delivery.

4) Infections during delivery.

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy:--

The signs and symptoms may not be similar in all babies affected.Depending upon the damage to the brain there may be mild to severe lesions.

Mild cases:- 20% children will have mild disability.

Moderate cases:-50% cases are having moderate disability.The affected children require self help for assisting their impaired ambulation capacity.

Severe cases:-About 30% of the affected children are totally incapacited and bedridden and they allways need care from others.

Abnormal findings in cerebral palsy:-

1,Abnormal neonatal reflexes.

2,Stiffness of all muscles with awkward motion.
3,Extention of extremities on vertical suspension of the infant.

4,Scissoring of the lower limbs due to spasm of the adductor muscles of the thigh.

5,In severe cases the back bend backwards like and arch.

6,May have total or partial paralysis.

7,Arrest of neurological and behavioral developement.

8,Swallowing may be difficult in some cases.

9,Drooling of saliva.

10,Mild to severe mental retardations.

11,Abnormal movements are seen in some cases.

12,Tremors with typical movements.

13,If cerebellum is affected there will be loss of muscle tone with difficulty in walking.

14,Complete or partial loss of hearing.

15,Speech may be affected.

16,Squint and other visual problems may be associated.

17,Convulsions may be seen in some children.

Cerebral palsy is diagnosed by detailed clinical examination and by eliminating other similar diseases like brain tumour, progressive atrophy ect.All investigations like CT scan,MRI and routine investigations are needed to ruleout other diseases.

Management of carebral palsy:--

General management:

This includes proper nutrition and personal care.  Symptomatic medicines are needed to reduce convulsions and muscle stiffness.  Diazepam can reduce spasticity and athetosis.
Dantrolene sodium helps to relax skeletal muscles.

Physiotherapy:

Here massage,exercise, hydrotherapy and ect are needed.Special training is given to train walking,swallowing and talking.The affected children are also trained to hold articles for routine activities.

Rehabilitation:

Moral and social support should be given to these children.They should be send to special schools where special training can be given by trained staff.Mentally retarded children need special training.Depending up on the disabitity special instruments and machines are given for locomotion and to assist their daytoday activities.

Occupational therapy:

This is given by occupational therapists.They train the disabled people to do some suitable works so that these people can have their own income.

Komentar

Postingan populer dari blog ini

HOW ALCOHOL RETARDS DIGESTION

And here, in order to give those who are not familiar with, the process of digestion, a clear idea of that important operation, and the effect produced when alcohol is taken with food, we quote from the lecture of an English physician, Dr. Henry Monroe, on "The Physiological Action of Alcohol." He says: 
"Every kind of substance employed by man as food consists of sugar, starch, oil and glutinous matters, mingled together in various proportions; these are designed for the support of the animal frame. The glutinous principles of food  fibrine, albumen  and  casein  are employed to build up the structure; while the  oil, starch  and  sugar  are chiefly used to generate heat in the body. 
"The first step of the digestive process is the breaking up of the food in the mouth by means of the jaws and teeth. On this being done, the saliva, a viscid liquor, is poured into the mouth from the salivary glands, and as it mixes with the food, it performs a very important part i…

HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE BRAIN

I once had the unusual, though unhappy, opportunity of observing the same phenomenon in the brain structure of a man, who, in a paroxysm of alcoholic excitement, decapitated himself under the wheel of a railway carriage, and whose brain was instantaneously evolved from the skull by the crash. The brain itself, entire, was before me within three minutes after the death. It exhaled the odor of spirit most distinctly, and its membranes and minute structures were vascular in the extreme. It looked as if it had been recently injected with vermilion. The white matter of the cerebrum, studded with red points, could scarcely be distinguished, when it was incised, by its natural whiteness; and the pia-mater, or internal vascular membrane covering the brain, resembled a delicate web of coagulated red blood, so tensely were its fine vessels engorged. 
I should add that this condition extended through both the larger and the smaller brain, the cerebrum and cerebellum, but was not so marked in th…

HOW ALCOHOL CAUSES MENTAL AND MORAL CHANGES

The transforming power or alcohol is marvelous, and often appalling. It seems to open a way of entrance into the soul for all classes of foolish, insane or malignant spirits, who, so long as it remains in contact with the brain, are able to hold possession. Men of the kindest nature when sober, act often like fiends when drunk. Crimes and outrages are committed, which shock and shame the perpetrators when the excitement of inebriation has passed away. Referring to this subject, Dr. Henry Munroe says: 
"It appears from the experience of Mr. Fletcher, who has paid much attention to the cases of drunkards, from the remarks of Mr. Dunn, in his 'Medical Psychology,' and from observations of my own, that there is some analogy between our physical and psychical natures; for, as the physical part of us, when its power is at a low ebb, becomes susceptible of morbid influences which, in full vigor, would pass over it without effect, so when the psychical (synonymous with the  mora…